Updated: Feb 14, 2021
An avocado is just an avocado, until it is raised without pesticides. Then it is worth more.
Beef is just beef, until it is raised without antibiotics. Then it's worth more.
Principle number one: Take out something harmful.
Electricity is just electricity, until it is generated with less carbon. Then it is worth more. Concrete is just concrete until it is generated with less carbon. Then it is worth more. Principle number 2: Reduce something harmful.
Beef merely raised without antibiotics, is not as valuable as beef, raised without antibiotics, and fed without grain, and born from heritage breeds less altered by commodity economics. Solar panels that merely produce electricity without carbon are not as valuable as solar panels that produce electricity without carbon and offer less risk of leaching. Principle number 3: Combine Principles 1 and 2.
Commodification is to economics as entropy is to physics: they both tend to a low-energy state. To reverse entropy in physics, you require physical energy. Principle number 4: To reverse commodification in economics, you require imagination.